History of Andhra Pradesh

The Andhras are originally an Aryan race, believed to have migrated to the south of the Vindhyas where they mingled with the non-Aryans. The earliest accounts of Andhra Pradesh date back to the time of Ashoka the Great Mauriyan king ( 3rd century B.C.) during whose reign it became an important Buddhist center. Andhra Pradesh history Ashoka Vijayanagar Amaravati Pallavas Cholas Tuglaks, Andhra Pradesh History, Know Andhra Pradesh History, Andhra Pradesh Past Even today there still are good evidences of the early Buddhist influence in Amaravathi and Nagarjunakonda, one of the greatest archaeological sites in the India.

The Satavahana dynasty ( 2nd century BC 2nd century A.D), also known as the Andhras, took control of much of central and southern India. They had their capital at Amravati on the Krishna. They enjoyed extensive international trade with both eastern Asia and Europe. The Satavahanas too were great patrons of Buddhism. Subsequently, the Pallavas from Tamil Nadu, the Chalukyas from Karnataka, and the Cholas all held sway. In the 13th century, the Kakatiyas, with their capital at Warrangal, dominated Andhra Desa. They were under the constant threat from Muslim incursions, while later on, after the fall of their city at Hampi, the Hindu Vijayanagars transferred operations to Chandragiri near Tirupati.

In 1323, the Tughlak Sultan of Delhi captured the Kakatiya ruler and ended the dynasty. Andhra Pradesh history Ashoka Vijayanagar Amaravati Pallavas Cholas Tuglaks, Andhra Pradesh History, Know Andhra Pradesh History, Andhra Pradesh Past The Tuglaks never cared to annex the Kakatiyan dominions and four local kingdoms arose out of the old Kakatiyan empire. One of these kingdoms was Vijayanagar. The Vijayanagar empire stood as a bulwark against Muslim expansionism for more than 200 years. Vijayanagar had to contend with Muslim sultanates in the north time and again. Sometimes Vijayanagar joined on sultan against another. These tactics finally led to a grand alliance of the sultanates of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Bihar against Vijayanagar. On 23rd January, 1565 the Deccan sultans humbled the mighty Vijayanagar army at the battle of Talikota.

The next significant development was in the mid 16th century, with the advent of the Muslim Qutb Shahi dynasty. The Qutb Shahis of Golconda laid the foundations of the modern city of Hyderabad. In 1687, the son of the Moghal emperor Aurangzeb routed the Qutub Shahis and seized Golconda. He appointed Asaf Jah the governor of Deccan.Andhra Pradesh history Ashoka Vijayanagar Amaravati Pallavas Cholas Tuglaks, Andhra Pradesh History, Know Andhra Pradesh History, Andhra Pradesh Past As the Mughal Empire tottered under Aurangzeb's successors, the Asaf Jahis made themselves independent rulers under the title of Nizam. Five years after Aurangzeb died in 1707, the Viceroy of Hyderabad declared independence and established the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Nizams. In return for allying with the British against Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the Nizam was allowed to retain a certain degree of autonomy even after the British had come to dominate all India. The Nizams became involved in the Anglo-French wars in the Deccan and had finally to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the British in 1800.

Andhra Pradesh is the first state in India that has been formed on a purely linguistic basis. When India became independent, the Andhras, that is, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is widely spoken in Hyderabad) were distributed in about 21 districts, 9 of them in the Nizam's Dominions and 12 in the Madras Presidency. On the basis of an agitation, on Oct. 1, 1953, 11 districts of the Madras State were put together to form a new Andhra State with Kurnool as capital. On Nov. 1, 1956 in accordance with the recommendations of the State Reorganization Commission, the Andhra State was enlarged by the addition of nine districts formerly in the Nizam's Dominion. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Nizam, was made the capital of the enlarged Andhra State.

AP thus consists of three distinct regions

* coastal region, comprising of nine districts, generally called Andhra,
* the interior region, consisting of four districts collectively known as Rayalaseema and
* Telengana region, consisting of the capital Hyderabad and nine adjoining districts.

From 1969 to 1972 AP was rocked by riots, first in Telengana, then in Andhra on the question of bifurcation of the state. The central Government refused to consider the question of bifurcation. A six-point formula was put forward by the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi as a compromise. The formula was generally accepted and peace was restored in the state. The six-point formula has been incorporated into the Constitution as the Thirty-second Amendment in 1973.
In 1995, under pressure from militant wives upset with wasteful drinking habits of their men, the state government imposed a total ban on alcohol, making Andhra Pradesh India's second major dry state after Gujarat.

¤ Post-Independence

Andhra Pradesh is one of the first states in India which was formed only on the linguistic basis. After India's independence, the andhras, that is, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is widely spoken in Hyderabad) were distributed in about 21 districts.Post-Independence,Post-Independence of Andhra Pradesh,Andhra Pradesh Post-Independence,History of Andhra Pradesh Out of them 9 were in the Nizam's Dominions and 12 in the Madras Presidency.

But after an agitation, on October 1, 1953, 11 districts of the Madras State were consolidated to form a new andhra State with Kurnool as capital. Later, on November 1, 1956 the State Reorganization Commission recommended to enlarge the andhra State by adding nine districts which were in the Nizam's Dominion. The city of Hyderabad, became the capital of the enlarged Andhra Pradesh, which was also the capital of the Nizam.

Subsequently, in the mid 16 th century, the Muslim Qutb Shahi dynasty emerged. The foundation of the modern city of Hyderabad was laid by the Qutub Shahis of Golcunda. They were defeated by the son of the Moghal emperor Aurangzeb in 1687, who seized Golconda.

He appointed Asaf Jah the governor of Deccan. Later, when the Mughal Empire was decaying under Aurangzeb's successors, the Asaf Jahis were collecting power to become independent rulers under the title of Nizam. Five years after the death of Aurangzeb, in 1707, Hyderabad was declared independent by its Viceroy and thus, established the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Nizams. Post-Independence,Post-Independence of Andhra Pradesh,Andhra Pradesh Post-Independence,History of Andhra Pradesh The Nizams helped the British against Tipu Sultan of Mysore and therefore they were rewarded a certain degree of autonomy even at the timem, when the British dominated all India. The Nizams were also involved in the Anglo-French wars in the Deccan. But, finally they had enter into a subsidiary alliance with the British in 1800.

Referred in the great Sanskrit epics, Andhra Pradesh traces its history and origin back to the 5th century BC. As stated by the inscriptions, Kuberaka had a kingdom in the coastal Andhra during that period. Perhaps, this kingdom is known to be oldest one in South India. In the 4th century BC, the Mauryans extended their kingdom to rule over Andhra Pradesh. The Mauryan Empire was declined when Andhra Satavahanas arrived on the scene in the 3rd century BC.

With the fall of Satavahanas in 220 CE, Andhra was ruled by Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Anandagotrikas and Cholas. During the rule of Renati Cholas, in 5th century CE, Telugu emerged as a popular medium of communication. In the reigning period of Vishnukundina Kings, Telugu was accredited to be the official language of the state. Post-Independence,Post-Independence of Andhra Pradesh,Andhra Pradesh Post-Independence,History of Andhra Pradesh By the 12th and 13th centuries CE, Chalukyan influence was undermined with the incursion of Kakatiya dynasty.

In 1323 CE, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq captured Warangal, with the assistance of Ulugh Khan. Once again, Warangal came under the control of Musunuri Nayaks, who ruled it for over 50 years. Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu established an independent Muslim state (Bahmani kingdom) in 1347 CE to revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. For about 200 years, the Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled over the Andhra kingdom.

The Northern Circars became element of the British Madras Presidency in colonial India. Soon after the surrender of five territories to the British by the Nizam, a region emerged by the name of Rayalaseema. The Nizams still controlled the princely state of Hyderabad. In 1947, India became free from the clutches of the British. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad preferred to be independent from India; however Hyderabad was enforced to become part of the Republic of India in 1948.

After much disagreement and civil unrest, the Government was forced to proclaim the configuration of a new state for Telugu speakers. In October 1953, Andhra managed to get the status of state. By November 1956, Andhra State was combined with the 'Telangana region' of Hyderabad State to shape Andhra Pradesh, the state of Telugu-speakers. Eventually, Hyderabad (the earlier capital of Hyderabad State) was declared to be capital of Andhra Pradesh.

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